L5 Unit 2-1 Listening
I recently had an interesting discussion with a colleague. We were recounting our job histories and how our, shall we say colorful personalities, could have negatively impacted us long term. The truth is, I was kind of an asshole coming out of college (some would argue I’m still kind of an asshole, but that’s beside the point). I was arrogant and bitingly sarcastic, a generally irreverent character. I thought I knew it all and was quite proud of myself for it.
Most English learners know the main definition of work is to LABOR. Some even know that when something works well, it FUNCTIONS. But there are SO MANY MORE ways that native speakers commonly use the word WORK that most learners have no idea about。大多数英语学习者知道工作的主要定义是与单词LABOR"劳动"相关的。有一些甚至知道，当某样东西“工作”得好，就意味着它运作得好。但是，英语母语者还有很多常用的关于work的表达方式，而大多数英语学习者都不知道。
One of the most important human emotions islove. However, there are many different kinds of love. Romantic love iscertainly one of most interesting kinds of love. It can be beautiful, wonderfuland heart breaking, sometimes all of the same time. Romantic Love can make ourlives full and meaningful butit can
I had a habit of telling more experienced engineers that they were doing things wrong, and despite being right most of the time, I didn’t have the personality to make it effective. During one particularly engaging conversation, one of the senior engineers stopped and said, in these exact words, “I’m going to f***en beat the shit out of you if you don’t shut up.” I laughed it off because I knew he wouldn’t dare, and only years later did I realize the relevance of that statement: it was actually what he wanted to do.
Today we’re going to explore these 9 phrasal verbs with the word work。今天我们将会介绍9个与work相关的动词短语。
also be an escape fromloneliness and suffering. If romantic lovehas a purpose,neitherphycologistnorbiologist has discovered it.however, throughout history,philosopherhaveoffered opinions about it. TheGeek Philosopher Plato said love makes us complete. Herelates a comic storyin which humansoriginallyhad 4 arms, 4 legs and 2 faces. Then, when theyangeredtheGods, they werecut in half.Since then, every person has beensearching fortheir soulmate, the otherhalf of his or her self.
Since that time I’ve grown up a lot, learned to watch what I say, and treat people with respect regardless of defining characteristics. The sarcasm stays in check while in a professional environment; I let it out to play when I’m with good friends. This self-control, along with a lot of other invaluable lessons, came to me not of my own accord, but through the careful guidance of the mentors I’ve had along the way. If not for them, who knows if my interpersonal relationships would have short-circuited my career.
Awww yeah! Let’s get to work。啊，那让我们开始吧！
Another philosopher believed that love isan illusion. In his view, people fallin lovebecause they believethe otherperson can make them happy. But in fact,this
The truth is that I have been incredibly blessed in my career because of the people I’ve come into contact with. My managers along the way molded a really rough-around-the-edges character into someone I’m proud to be. More than that, because of their influence, I’m not just a good programmer – I’m a good teammate and a good person. So impactful were these people on my life that I frequently recount their advice to the colleagues that I now mentor.
9 Phrasal Verbs With Workwork的9个妙用
is just an illusion designed to make us have children(省略that定语从句).Once we have children, weare right back to where we were, still
I also find their advice to be universally applicable, so I’d like to share the things I was told that helped me along the way. Of course, some of these are paraphrased since my memory for exact phrases isn’t all that great, but I believe I’ve captured the important parts correctly.
1. Work Out (4 Different Uses) 有四种不同的用法
searching for happiness. For nature, this is a success because we havechildren tomaintain our species.But itleadsus still searching forsomething more.
Don’t be a short-order cook
• Exercise (vb, n)：To work out(vb)， or do a workout(n)， is to do any form of exercise with a focus being on the physical activity. Different ways to work out include: go for a bike ride, run, swim, lift weights, do yoga. Hiking (walking in nature)， for example, would not generally be used with the verb “work out,” but if it works your body, you might use it as a noun by saying, “that hike was a good workout。”锻炼(动词或名词)：To work out，或者do a workout(名词)做一定形式的物理锻炼。不同的锻炼方式包括：骑自行车、跑步、游泳、举重、瑜伽。例如，登山(在野外漫步)不会用work out动词短语来形容，但是如果它作用于你的身体，你可以用作一个名词像，“that hike was a good workout。”“登山是一项好锻炼”。
In Buddhism, romantic loveis seen asanattempt to satisfy to our desires. These desires aredefect, something we need to overcome.The way we freeourselvesfromsuffering,is toremove desires. Oncefree
My very first job lasted 8 months because the company shut down. As I was talking with my manager about what I would do next, he gave me this advice:
–I try to work out 3 times a week after work. (vb) 我每周锻炼3次。(作动词)
of desires, we canreach a state of
Nicholas, you’re worth more than your code. Whatever your next gig is, make sure that you’re not a short-order cook. Don’t accept a job where you’re told exactly what to build and how to build it. You need to work somewhere that appreciates your insights into the product as well as your ability to build it.
–How often do you work out at the gym? (vb) 你多长时间到健身房里锻炼一次？(作动词)
peace and wisdom. This states of freeing are called *.
This is something I’ve kept in mind throughout my career. Simply being an implementer isn’t good enough – you need to be involved in the process that leads up to implementation. Good engineers don’t just follow orders, they give feedback to and work with product owners to make the product better. Fortunately, I’ve chosen my jobs wisely and never ended up in a situation where people didn’t respect or value my insights.
–The run was only 15 minutes long, but it was an amazing workout. (n)：虽然只跑了15分钟步，但是真的是一次很棒的锻炼啊！(作名词)
In one of China greatest classical novels,Dream of the Red Chamber, loveis presented
• To result in success (vb)：When something works out, an arrangement or relationship results in success. Common examples of this include:to result in success意思是以成功结束某事(动词)：意思是一个计划或一段关系已成功结束。一般的例子如下：
asa state of foolishness. A youngman falls in love with a beautiful woman, whotricks and makes fool of him. Thisresults intheconflictingemotions of love and hatewhichtear him apart(使心碎). To cure him, apriestgives him a magic mirror. The priest tells him to look into thereverse sideof the mirror but neverlook at thefront side. When theyoung man looks into the mirror, he doesn’t like what he sees, so he looks intothe forbidden side, the front side. There he sees the lovelyimage ofhis love, who invites him intothe mirror, to be with her. He does it several times, until he has finallydragged away(拖走)inchains. He dies while looking into the mirror. Perhaps thepoint of the story is that all suchattachmentsshouldbe
My second manager at Yahoo pulled me aside one day to give me some advice. He had been watching my work and felt like I was hiding a bit:
–When he first started his new job, he was scared things wouldn’t work out, but after a few months, his boss told him that things were really working out really well. 当他开始这份新工作的时候，他很害怕不会成功，但是在数月之后，他的老板告诉他事情进展得很顺利。
You do great work. I mean really great work. I like how your code looks and that it rarely breaks. The problem is that others don’t see it. In order for you to get credit for the work you’re doing, you have to let people know. You need to do a bit of self-promotion to get noticed.
–Everything always works out in the end. (common collocation) 每件事情在最后都会成功的(一般的意思)
A famous French writer, Simone de Beauvoirhas another point of view. For her, love is the desire tointegratewithanother,like in a great friendship. However, it’s important that the loversnot becometoodependent onthe other person. Becoming too dependent on the otherperson can lead toboredomor powergames. Lovers should support each otherindiscovering themselvesanddeveloping their potentials. In thisway, romantic love can reach the world. Falling in love can be exciting andfrightening. Maybe we lose ourselves and maybe we find ourselves. Would youdare tofind out?
It took me a little while to digest what he was saying, but I finally figured it out. If you do good work, but no one knows that you did good work, then it doesn’t really help you. Your manager canback you upbut can’t make your case for you. People within the organization need to understand your value, and the best way to do that is to tell people what you did.
–If things aren’t working out in your job or relationships, it’s best to try to fix it or change. 如果你在工作或恋爱中失败了，那么尽全力去修补或者改变吧。
Other kinds of love include the love
This is advice I give to many of my colleagues now. Self-promoting doesn’t mean, “look at me, I’m awesome.” It means letting people know when you’ve hit major milestones, or when you’ve learned something new. It means showing people the work that you’re proud of. It means celebrating your accomplishments and the accomplishments of others. It means being visible within the organization. The engineer who sits quietly in a corner and just codes away is always a bit mysterious – don’t be like that. A quick email to say, “hey, I finished the new email layout. Let me know what you think” goes a long way.
• To Fix/Solve Something (vb)： To work (something) out is to fix or resolve a problem or issue you’re having with something。去解决某件事情：意思是去解决你正在面对的一个问题或困境
between a parent and child.
It’s about people
–When you’re having relationship problems, it’s best to try to work it out. 如果你有人际关系问题，那么最好的方法就是去解决。
If something is an illusion, it isn’t what
I was very title-driven earlier in my career. I always wanted to know what I had to do to be promoted. During my first one-on-one with my new manager on the Yahoo homepage, I asked what it would take for me to get promoted. His words still ring in my ears:
–The famous Beatles song, “We Can Work it Out” is a great example of this use of the phrasal verb, “work it out。” 披头士的一首歌“We Can Work it Out”是这个动词短语的一个极好的例子。
it seems to be.
At a certain point, you stop being judged on your technical knowledge and start being judged on the way you interact with people.
• To Calculate the Answer to a mechanical or math problem. Examples below:计算一个机械或数学问题的答案。例子如下：
L5 Unit 2-1 vocabulary
I’m not sure I’ve ever received a better insight into the software engineering profession since that time. He was exactly right. At that point, no one was questioning my technical ability. I was known as a guy who wrote good, high-quality code that rarely had bugs. What I lacked was leadership skill.
–The 13 years old was a complete genius. He had already worked out the most difficult physics equations that even Einstein couldn’t ever solve. 那个13岁的孩子简直是个天才。他解决了连爱因斯坦都不曾解决的极难的物理问题。
Forbidden or prohibited to be against thelaw or not allowed. Smoking is prohibited on many airplanes. Athletes areforbidden from takingcertain kinds ofdrugs. If something is allowed, it isn’t forbidden or prohibited.
Since that time, I’ve seen countless engineers get stuck at one level in their career. Smart people, good code, but the inability to work effectively with others keeps them where they are. Anytime someone feels stuck in their software engineering career, I recount this advice and it has always been right on the money.
–Most math teachers will allow you to work out algebra problems on a calculator or even on a piece of scratch paper (blank paper used to work out equations by hand for a test). 大多数数学老师都会让你用计算机或在草稿纸(用于手算方程的空白纸)上解决代数问题。
Risky to be a big dangerous or unsafe. Arisky investment may not be a goodidea
None of this matters
2. Work Up
forpeople who worry too much. If you make a risky investment, they may losea lot of money. What level of risk are you willing to take?
I went through a period at Yahoo where I was frustrated. Maybe frustrated isn’t the right word, more like angry. I had angry outbursts and was arguing with people constantly. Things were going wrong and I didn’t like that. During one particularly rough day, I asked one of my mentors how he managed to stay calm when so many things were going wrong. His response:
• Work up the feeling: To evoke an emotional state (ex: Work up the courage, the excitement, an appetite). 唤起某种情绪(例如：拿出勇气，拿出激情，拿出渴望)
Ridiculous to be foolish or not make any
It’s easy. You see, none of this matters. So some crappy code got checked in, so the site went down. So what? Work can’t be your whole life. These aren’t real problems, they’re work problems. What really matters is what happens outside of work. I go home and my wife is waiting for me. That’s pretty nice.
• Work up to something: To arrive at something through preparation (ex: Even though he could only run 5 km, he was determined work up to the full 42 km distance of a marathon little by little over the next 6 months。) 通过准备，达到做成某事(例如：尽管他只跑了五千米，但是他决心在接下来六个月中，一点一点的完成42千米的马拉松。)
sense. Their proposal is ridiculous because it requires too much time and
I had moved to California from Massachusetts and had a hard time making friends. Work was my life, it was what kept me sane, so when it wasn’t going that meant my life wasn’t going well. This conversation made me realize I had to have something else going on in my life, something I could go back to and forget about the troubles I had at work.
• To be/ Get Worked Up: To get stressed or upset about something. (ex: he doesn’t like to drive during rush hour [when there’s a lot of traffic] because he gets worked upand honks his horn all the time。) 因为某事而感到压力或忧伤(例如：他不想在上下班高峰期开车(那时候交通会非常拥挤)，因为他不想变得烦躁，然后不断地按喇叭)
money. Without enough quality practice, it’s ridiculous to expect much progress.
He was right, once I shifted my mindset and recategorized the annoying things at work as “work things,” I was able to think more clearly. I was able to calm down at work and have much more pleasant interactions with people.
3. Work On
Innovative to come up with good idea or wayof doing things. Innovative people are often clever and creative. Too innovatemeans tocome up with a new way ofdoing something. Innovative thinking can lead to the development of newproducts and services.
Authority, your way
• To spend time and effort improving something (ex: I have a lot of problems with my pronunciation, but I’m working on it。) 为了提高某件事而花时间花精力(例如：我在发音上有很大的问题，但是我正在努力改进。)
Conservative, to be conservative means toavoid taking risks. Conservative investor tries to make safe investments. Aconservative investor wants tominimize
When I was first promoted to principal engineer at Yahoo, I sat down with my director to better understand what the role entailed. I knew I had to be more of a leader, but I was having trouble being authoritative. I asked for help. Here’s what he said:
• To try to influence a person (ex: the manager didn’t want to hire me, but my friend Sarah works there, and she is working on him, so I hope he changes his mind。) 尝试去影响一个人(例如：经理不想雇佣我，但是我的朋友Sarah在那里工作，她正在尝试说服经理，所以我希望经理能够改变主意。)
risks. Aconservative of approach to
I can’t tell you how to be authoritative, that’s something you need to figure out on your own. Different people have different styles. What you need to do is find a style that you can live with, that makes you comfortable. I can’t tell you what that is, but you do need to find it for this position.
4. Work Around
managementmay discourage innovation.
I spent a lot of time that year observing people of authority and how they interacted with others. I took note as to how they walked, how they talked, how they dealt with problem situations. I tried different styles before I finally came across one that worked for me. My style is uniquely me and anyone learning to be in a position of authority has to go through the same growing pains. My advantage was that my mentor clued me about the process up front.
To successfully circumvent (find your way around) an obstacle or a problem without having to directly deal with it or solve it. (ex: I didn’t have all the ingredients to make the dish from the recipe, but I worked around it by substituting a few items) 成功地规避了某个困难，而不是直接地处理或解决它。(例如：按照菜谱，我并没有做这个菜的材料，但是我用别的东西代替了。)
Todisguise,to change something’sappearancesothat it can’t berecognized. He wasn’tgood atdisguising himselfso weknew who he wasright away. She woreand disguise so it wasn’t sure who she was.
Moving from “how?” to “what?”
5. Work Through
To clarify, to explain or make somethingclear. We weren’t sure what he meant until he clarified his ideas. Everyone wasconfused until she clarifiedwhat she
During a conversation with my manager at Yahoo, I asked what the expectations were with my new position. He answered:
To work through a problem is to gradually deal with or solve (a generally more complicated problem). In a relationship, to work through something can be to “talk through it。” (ex: the couple was having serious problems, so they decided to go to a relationships counselor to help them work through their issues。)意思是慢慢地解决了一个问题(通常是一个更复杂的问题)在一段恋爱中，这也可以说“谈谈”的意思。(例如：这对夫妻有严重的问题，所以他们去拜访恋爱质询师来解决他们间的问题。)
To this point in your career, you’ve answered the question, “how?” As in, we tell you what needs to be done and you figure out how to do it. At this point, though, you need to answer the question, “what?” I’m expecting you to come and tell me what needs to be done.
Note:There’s also a literal use of work through as you can “work your way through college” (pay your university expenses by simultaneously working a job)。注意：还有一种关于这个词的用法，“work your way through college”(边工作边上大学来付学费。)
To confuse, to make things difficult tounderstand. The opposite is to clarify. Everyone is confused, because thepresentation is so disorganized. Heconfusespeople because hekeepschanging hisideas. The instructions were confusing so nobody knew what to do.
This is the part where I see a lot of engineers get tripped up, and I would have as well if not for this piece of advice. Switching from “how?” to “what?” is very hard and takes time to develop. It also takes a bit of maturity to be left to your own desires as to what you focus on. After all, if you can spend your time on anything you want, you are also solely responsible for what you produce.
6. Work Towards
To ignore, to try not to notice or dealwith something. Toact asifsomething isn’t there. We tried to ignore her but she finally stood up andtoldeveryonetoshut up. People don’t respect or like her so they ignore her inthe office.
At Box, we call this “running open loop,” meaning that you do your job with minimal oversight and yet still are making a significant positive impact on the engineering organization and the company as a whole. This is the step where many engineers fail to make the leap, and I still give this advice to anyone who is trying to get to the next level.
To work towards is to make an effort with the intention of achieving a future objective. (ex: The marathon runner woke up at 5 am every day as he worked toward his goal of running under 3:00 for the 42 km marathon。) 意思是，特意地花精力去实现将来的某些目标(例如：那个马拉松运动员，每天早上5点醒来，朝着在三小时内跑完42千米的目标奋进。)
To confirm, to indicate that something corrector completed it assusceptive. Wewon’tsure ifhe’s going toaccept the offeruntil he called andconfirmed it. we can’t start theprojectwithout written confirmationthat we agree on the details.
Act like you’re in charge
7. Work Off
Meeting something on the internet can be risky, so be careful.
I had just sat through a meeting where I had nothing to say. During my one-on-one with my director, I mentioned that I was just in a meeting where I had no idea why I was there and had nothing to contribute. He said:
To work off means to pay somebody with work to compensate for money owed (or any other type of debt。) You can also work something off with physical activity (stress, excess weight). (ex: The kid didn’t have money to pay for his meal, so the restaurant owner let him work it off by washing dishes for an hour)。这个短语的意思是通过为某人工作来还钱(或其他任何类型的债务)。你也可以用一些生理活动来偿还解决(如缓解压力，解决体重超重)(例如：那个小孩儿没有钱为他的食物买单，所以那个餐厅让他洗一个小时碟子还债。)
There wereforbidden fromgoing to that website, because of itscontent.
Don’t ever do that again. If you’re in a meeting, it’s because you are there to participate. If you’re not sure why you’re there, stop and ask. If you’re not needed, leave. You’re in a leadership position, act like it. Don’t go quietly into a room. Just act like you’re in charge and people will believe it.
8. Work In
In that piece of advice, my mentor had reminded me of a lesson I learned while acting in high school: no one knows when you’re acting. If you’re nervous but act like you’re not, then people won’t know that you’re nervous. The same with leadership. The old phrase fake it til you make it comes to mind. From that point on, I never sat quietly in a meeting. I made sure I only went to meetings that needed me to participate and then I would participate.
To work something in means to consciously include integrate something. (ex: He said he was too busy to exercise, but I convinced him to work in a few sessions at the gym。)这个短语的意思是，有意地包括某样东西。(例如，他说他太忙没时间健身，我说服他安排了些时间在健身房锻炼。)
Let them win
9. Work Over
ofthe factory is prohibitedfor
I went through a particular period where there were a lot of arguments on the team. I prided myself on ending those arguments with authority. I had a “my ruling is final” mentality, and my manager noticed that and gave me this piece of advice:
• (Slang) To beat or inflict injury on something or someone. (i.e. Brazil didn’t expect to get worked over by Germany in the world cup final。)(俚语)打或伤害某人某事。(巴西不会想在世界杯决赛上被德国打败。)
I see a lot of arguing going on, and I see you pushing through to win a lot. I know that most of the time you are right, but every once in a while let them win. Pick the things that really matter to you and push for those but let the other things go. There’s no need to win every argument.
• (Literal) To subject to intense examination。(直译)接受紧张的考试
This was one piece of advice I resisted initially. I was right nearly all of the time, why would I ever let someone else win? However, as I had grown to trust his instincts, I gave it a shot. The result: there were less arguments. People didn’t feel like they had to get one over on me, and in turn, I became better at identifying things I really didn’t care that much about. I stuck to my guns on important issues and let the others ones get resolved by the other party. The intensity of all conversations dropped considerably.
• (Literal) To redo something (do again)(直译)重做某事
L5 Unit 2-1 dialogue
What’s so funny? what are you writing
Looking back at the brash guy I was when I graduated college, my career could have ended up very different. I was seen as a malcontent, a smart but hard-to-deal-with guy who people dealt with because they had to. If it weren’t for the mentors I had along the way, as well as some humbling failures early in my career, my interpersonal skills (or lack thereof) could have very well done me in. These days, I regularly seek out those who are more experienced than me and ask for advice. I may no longer make big, glaring mistakes, but I also don’t want to wait for one to happen to seek out the experienced insights of someone I trust.
The nearly five years I was at Yahoo were some of the most transformative in my career. I got to work on interesting problems at a large scale, but moreso I was blessed with a series of wonderful managers and other mentors within my organization. I credit those conversations with turning me into a person that I’m proud of today, both at work and outside in “real life.”
I’m writing about something I saw earlier
If I can leave you with one overriding piece of career advice, it would be this: identify someone at your work that is smarter than you in some way (technically, organizationally, etc.) and attach yourself to them. See if you can regularly have lunch or coffee and pick their brain for the vast amount of knowledge it has. Your career, and maybe even your life, could end up drastically better by doing so.
Really, do you keep a journal?
Yes, I do. Very weekend I write about
things that happened during the week.
How long have you been doing it?
I’ve been doing it fairly regularly since
Are you going to turn it into a book?
I don’t know. Maybe I will something but
for now it’s just for me.
So what was so interesting about what you
saw this morning?
I was in the same coffee shop I usually go
to and a group of teenagers came in.
I couldn’t help watching them and try to
hear some of their conversation.
That must have been interesting.
Yes, it was. The more I watched them, the
more I realized how glad I am that I don’t have to go through that state of life again.
So it brought back some memories, right?
Yes, it did. It was so clear how I’m
uncomfortable some of them were. Yet, they were pretending to have good time. At
least, there was seemed to me.
Why did you think they were pretending?
It was just the way they smiled andlaughed. It seemedunnatural and
overdoneas if they were bad actors.
A couple of boys were reallyawkward aroundthe girls and two of thegirls were wearing too much makeup. I had to stop myself and laughing.
Yes, I can imagine it. I can remember wanting
to be popular when I was in high school. Now that you mentioned it, it wasn’t a
great time, thought I had so fun too.
I guessed it wasn’t so bad at the time,
except when I was preparing for my university entrance examinations.
Yes, that was awful. My parentsput tons of pressure on meso I thoughtI was going to go crazy.
What about girls? Did you have any
There was one girl I had a crush on, but I
thought she was interested in somebody else. I didn’t find out until much later that she was interested in me too. It was
a lost opportunity, one of many.
Really? You should become a writer or make
a movie. You had a great imagination.
To be honest, it’s much easier to imaginethings thanactuallydo things.
You can say that again.
It seemed unnatural and overdone, as if
they were bad actors.
L5 Unit 2-2 listening
People have wondered about the nature of lightand colorsince ancient times. Somepeople thought that light came from the eyes rather thancoming intothe eyes. To see, light was projected(投射) from our eyes, to illuminate(照亮) thingsas we look at them. Now we know thatwhat we see is mostly reflected light, like the light from the moon, which isreflected sunlight. Light comes from light source and either enters our eyesdirectly or after reflecting off thing.
In 1666, Sir Isaac Newton showed that whenlight past through a prism, it’s separated into all the other colors. Itclearly demonstrated that lightis
composed ofmany different colors. Thedifference
betweencolors is due totheirwavelength. A prismseparates light into
different colorsbecause each color has different wavelength. theangle in whicha colorbendsin a prismdepends onits wavelength.Colors
withshorter wavelengthsbend morethan colors withlonger wavelengths.It explains why red light bends less than yellow light. The reason is becauseits wavelength is longer. Of thevisiblelight,violetlight has the shortestwavelength, so it bends the most.
If you have ever painted, you knew thatdifferent colors can be combined to create new colors. For example, if you addwhite to a color, you lighten it. however, the threeprimarycolors, red, blue and yellow cannot be made by mixing othercolors. It isn’t possible to mix any combination of colors to create red, blueor yellow. Mixing two primary colors creates a secondary color, such as purple,which is a mixing of blue and red. Mixing three primary colors create atertiary(第三的)color
such as brown or grey.
Color are wonderful to look at. But theyalso affect people in waysbesides sight.They have a powerful effect on who people feel and behave. Artists notice andso do business people, who want toinfluence
on how theyfeel about their products and advertisement. For example,researches have shown that people can be productive if they are working at ablue room. The color purpleis often
linked towealth and loyalty and it seems as amysterious,spiritual(精神的) color. Some colors haveeven beenassociated withthechanges in blood pressure. Though color caninfluence how we feel and act, these effects may depend on personalor cultural factors. Therefore, it’s important not to believeeverything you hear aboutthe effectsof colors.
Though there are differences between cultures,there isgeneral agreementaboutsome colors. The color red, for example, is a warm color, associated withenergy and excitement in many cultures. In china, red is associate with fire,energy and good fortune. On the other hand, one experiment show that exposingstudents to red before taking a text can have a negative effect. In fact, ofall the colors, research shows that redhas
the most powerful effect on human behavior. Certainly, it’s interesting andimportantto better understandthepsychologicaleffect of light andcolor. To gain a better understand of these effects, more research is needed.
L5 Unit 2-2 vocabulary
To promote, to move someone up in an
organization, usually he has done a good job. We are going to promote her to
manager. If we don’t promote him, he will probably be upset. The opposite of
promote is demote.
To transfer, to move someone or something
from one place to another. The company was going to transfer him to Shanghai
next month. She doesn’t want to be transferred because her husband is against
moving to another city.
To motivate, toget someoneinterested and excitedaboutdoing something. She’s really good at motivating heremployees.One way tomotivatesomeoneis toencourage thembygiving themconstructivefeedback.
To postpone, to delay or put off somethinguntila later date. We had to postponethe presentation because she wasn’t ready to give it. we can’t continue topostpone the meeting where they would cancel it completely.
To evade, to escape or avoid something.They are trying to evade taking responsibility for their failure. He wasarrested fortax evasion.
To assign, to give someone a text to do.His bossassignedhimtoincrease sales by 15%. Her companyassigned her tofind out more aboutthe competition.
To penalize, to fine or punish someone fordoing something wrong. They were penalizedforbreaking the rules. You would be penalized for fewer late.
To lay off, to fire or sack a workerbecause business is bad. The company wasfailingso he was laid off. Our company had to lay off 50% of the employees. A companymay have to lay off workers when business was bad.
Torecruit,to look for new employees to hire. They are expanding their business andrecruiting new employees. She joined to company after she was recruited at ajob fair.
To resign, tovoluntarilyto quit one’s job. His boss doesn’t like him, so he wasasked to resigned. Sheresigned from her
jobbecause of the health reasons.
It wouldn’t hurt to be a little less formaland to smileonce in a while.
L5 Unit 2-2 dialogue
Wow, you look different today.
You mean I’m beautiful?
What’s the makeup?
I felt like dressing up today. Don’t you
Do you want me to be honest?
Of course, but I know you. You are so
I just think you don’t need so much makeup
to look beautiful. That at least like a v??
not everyone agrees with you. And I like looking
different once in a while.
I glad that I’m not a woman. There are too
many things to deal with.
Yes, you wouldn’t be good at it.
You always wear the same old clothes, it’s
Maybe it’s boring, but it’s comfortable.
You’re never going to find a new girlfriend
if you don’t change.
I’m not interested in woman anymore. You
know that. They are nothing but trouble.
Am I trouble?
You and I are just opposites. You are
always doing something new and I would rather just relax.
You sound like an old man. You need to act
younger. You need to be more exciting.
And then what? Find my soulmate?
Really, you sound so cynical(愤世嫉俗的). Don’t you believe in love?
Sure, and the movie may be.
Love is an illusion. It neverlastsandonceit starts, it’s difficult tobreak off.
Your problem is that you expect too much
from love. You are too romantic. You need to be more practical.
I thought you were the romantic one.
I had a romantic side yes, but I’mpractical. My manhas got to begoodlooking, well dress and hopefully rich.
Ha-ha, but that lets me out.
Yes, you’ve got a lot to learn.
Now, where are we going for dinner? Somewhere
Ok, you’ve convinced me that your makeupisn’t so bad. But I think it’s yourturn
That’s what you think.
They’ll split the bill.
L5 Unit 2-3 listening
One of the most interesting people inhistory is probably someone you’ve never heard of. We would call him icemanbecause his bodywas frozen in icefor several thousand years. His body was discovered in 1991 by 2 hikers inmountainnear the border ofAustralia and Italy. Thelower part ofhis body was still frozen in icebut the
upper partwasuncovered and visible.Once a body wasextracted fromtheice, it was taken in for the examination.Upon
examination, scientists determined that the iceman lived around53 hundred years ago. This was at the end of stoneage, nearly 1000 years before the greatpyramidswere built. This made him the oldest mummy ever found. Ice man’s body was ingood condition when it was found. People believed that the body was one of manyhikers who have been lost in recent years. Nobody suspected that the bodywas as old as it was. It had beenpreservedby the ice for thousands ofyears.Given its good condition,
studying it was like opening a window in time. Scientist could learn a lotabouthow people lived5 thousandyears ago.
The iceman lived at the end of stone age, atime of great change in human history. Hunting was stillmajor source for foodbut people were beginning to farm. Peopleweresettling downand forming communities.These communities wereclaimingterritoryandsetting upboundaries.As a result, sometimes they had to fight todefend their territoryfrom outsiders.The village where the iceman lived was probably not far from where he
died. Perhaps, he was killedin the
Iceman was about 45 years old when he died.He was 1.6 meters tall andweigh about50 kilograms when he was alive. Along with the body was the mother objects.These included some weapons, including a broken arrow, a knife and an axe. Hewas still wearing one of his shoes and he had a backpack with the wooden frame.He also had some plants that may have been used for medical purposes. Furtherexamination of the body showed that he was well fat with a diet of meet, breadand food. In fact, he had eaten several mealswithin a few hoursof his death. From all the evidence, he probablyhad a good life. Perhaps he was hunting for food when hewas caught in a sudden storm. For several years after the discoveryof the body, scientist believed that he died from the cold. Weather isunpredictablein the areawhere hewas found, so perhaps he was caught in an unexpected storm. However, 10 yearsafter his body was found, new evidence pointed a new cause of death. In 2001,examinerX-rayed the body and found anarrowheaddeep in the iceman’s chest.Further analysis revealedthat theicemanhad been shot from behind.The arrowhad cut throughanarteryand hadcause severe bleeding. Clearly it was a case of murder, the oldestcase of murder ever discovered.
L5 Unit 2-2 vocabulary
To sue, to take someone to court in a legaldisagreement. They broke our contract and didn’t pay so we sued them andwon. She sued that her employers forfiring her but she lost because they had the right to fire her.
To restrict, to put limits on something. This
is a restricted area so stay away. We need to restrict them from talking to
anyone about our project.
To negotiate, to deal with a bargain with
others to reach an agreement. Instead of starting a war, we should negotiate
and find a way to compromise. We are trying to negotiate a better deal but it
Responsible for or responsible to, to beresponsible for something means to have a job getting done or taking care of.If you areresponsible to someone,it means that you’re working under their control.
Oversee or supervise, to control or directa process ofa project. One of hisresponsibilities was to supervise therescue
operationsandkeep things under
control. As a product manager, she oversees the work of severaldepartments.
To merge, to combine or come together.Those 2 companies used to be competitors, but now they havemerged intoone company. When thecompanies merged, many people were laid off.
To acquire, to buy or take position. Some
big company grows by acquiring other companies. One way to protect your
business is to acquire your competitors.
An agenda, a plan or a list of items to bediscussed at the meeting. The agenda for the meeting was still unclear. Whatare the main pointsonthe agendaforthe meeting?
A contract, a written document that definesthe rule and relationship. A contract isn’t usually useful until things beginsto go badly in the relationship. According to our contract, their firstpayment is duenext week.
Assets and liabilities, assets are what youownand liabilities are what youowe. Knowing the assets and liabilitiesof a company, helpdetermineacompany’s value. The company has more liabilities than assets so we decided notto invest.
L5 Unit 2-3 dialogue
Good morning, Lisa. What was it you wanted
to see me about?
Ah, good morning. Thanks for seeing me on
such short work notice, I know it’s a busy time for you.
That’s OK, Lisa. I can see that you’re
upset about something. Is something wrong?
Yes, actually there is and I’ve been
thinking about a lot. To make it short, I’ve decided to leave the company.
You’re going to leave?
Yes, I think it’s best. I’m really not
happy here anymore.
Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. Have you found
No, it isn’t that. My husband and I have
just decided that I really don’t need to work.
Well, I’m sorry to hear that you want to
leave. But I really want you to reconsider. You’ve only been here for a year.
There isn’t very long and it won’t help you resume if you decide to look for a
job in the future.
Yes, that maybe true but staying here isreally stressful. You may not be aware
of itbut I have real problems with my supervisor Bill.
Oh, what kind of problems?
He takes on projects and assigns them to mewith no regard formy other responsibilities.It’s just too much. Then hetakes all
the creditfrom my work. Maybe I’m just too sensitive.
Yes, I know he connected that way. And I
have told him in some areas that he needs to improve. Anyway that all people
like that in every organization.
I know it’s difficult but you need how to
deal with people like him.
Well, I don’t know. It’s really stressful.
It isn’t easy for me to talk to him.
Listen, Lisa. You have great potential andI don’t want to lose you. If you already had job offer, I wouldn’tstand in your way. but since you don’t,I really want you to stay.
I appreciate your saying that. It means a
So would you please reconsider your
Yes, I will talk to my husband.
As for bill, please try work with him for a
bit longer. This is your part of learning experience.
Thanks, I really appreciate your advice.
You are great sales person. I’m feeling better already.
You are welcome, Lisa. I need you to stay.Pleasegive it at leastanother year.
She has sold Lisa on the idea of staying
for another year.
She has designed to quit because she’s not
happy working there.
L5 Unit 2-4 Listening
When the body of the iceman was discovered,nobody realized that he had been murdered. It was believed that he wasgot lost in stormand he died in thecold weather. However, with the discovery of the arrowhead in his body, it wasclear that the iceman was murdered. Analysis has shown that an arrow hadentered his bodyandcut through the arterieshis chest. Itwould cause severe bleeding and weaken him. With the loss of blood, he couldn’t have survived for very long after beingshot. Further examination revealed something more about how he may have died.Using a CT scan, scientistfound blood
in his brain. Thisindicatedthat he wasstruckon the headbefore he died.Eitherhe was hit onthe headorhe fell andstruck his head on a rock. Thisprobably happened when he wasin a weakened
conditionafter being shot by the arrow. Additional evidence showed thatthe arrow itself had been pulled out of the body. It had beenpulled out with force,leavingjust the arrowhead inside. Evenmore interesting was what was left behind, the copper ax.The technology needed to make such a weapon, was new at the time.As a result, scientist believe that there was a sign of great wealth andposition. This suggests that the iceman may have been an important leader. Italsoraises a question of whythekiller didn’t take it with him.
If the iceman was important, he may havebeen the leader of his community. One leading theory of his death is that hehad beenassassinated. In ancienttimes, to take power, you often had to kill the leader. Perhaps the iceman wasthe target of assassination. The murdered may have followed the iceman andkilled him from behind. Then to protect his identity, hepulled outthe arrow andcoveredthe body. He left the copper ax behind so that he couldn’t be identified.According to this theory, the iceman was killed by a member of his owncommunity. Therefore, the murder was probably someone he knew.
Another theory is that the iceman waskilled after abattle withoutsiders. Since the community was located on an importanttrade route, it may have been attacked. the iceman may have beenthe military leader, fighting to defend his village. Perhaps he was ina battle withthe attackerson the datewhen he died. According tothis theory, hewas fled fromthebattle and was caught from behind in an isolated area. However, from theanalysis of his stomach, it is unlikely that he was running for many one. Therewas a half-pound of food in his stomach when he died.Since food only remained in stomach for about an hour, he must have eaten alarge meal shortly before his death. Someone who was in a hurry, would nevertake the time to stop and eat such a large meal. And if he was killed by theoutsiders, why didn’t they take the copper ax. So the questionremainsabout what happenedon that final date of his life. Thetruth is that nobody will ever know what really happened. The iceman’s murdererwill remain a mystery forever.
L5 Unit 2-4 vocabulary
To interfere, toslowsomethingdownandmake worseby getting in the way. Having too many meetings isinterfering withour work. I told hertolet us alone, and not tointerfere in our problems.
To reflect, to think about or considersomething or throw back the image as from the mirror. Before I make a decision,I like sometime to reflect. When you look into a mirror, your imageis reflected backto you.
To influence, to have an effect onsomething. I think she canhelp us
influencethe others. I don’t think we can influence the final result. Theydon’t care what we think so it would be difficult to influence their decision.
To focus, to bring attention to something and make it clear. If we don’t focus
on something, we won’t get anything done. We aren’t sure what to focus on, so
everyone was confused.
Toexaggerate,to describe something is larger or more importantthan it really is. It’s difficult to believe what he says becausehe always exaggerates. She says she can sell anything but of course that was anexaggeration.
To be persuasive, able tocausepeopleto dosomethingby asking or
giving reasons. She’s good at selling things because she is verypersuasive. You can be more persuasive if youhave facts to support you.
To be convincing, toprovidepowerful supportfora belief and toovercome doubts. Theevidence that he was murdered was convincing. I couldn’t convince them that Iwas telling the truth, so they arrested me.
To be misleading, to leave away from the truth, to give afalse idea. Their advertisements are misleading, so be careful notto be fooled. He tries tomisleadmeintobuying itbyexaggerating the benefits.
To be unique, to be highly usual or
different from others. I like that design because it’s unique and attractive.
She has a unique personality that some people don’t like.
To be ordinary, to be just like others, not
different from any other. The products are ordinary, with nothing except a low price to recommend them. The food in that restaurant was expensive but the
taste was ordinary.
There is nothing ordinary about her, so we
should give her a promotion.
L5 Unit 2-4 dialogue
Did you see the beautiful sunset tonight?
It was gorgeous(华丽).
No, I didn’t. but I’m surprised you even
notice such things.
Really, why are you surprise?
You are so focus on you work. I didn’t
imagine you have ro your mind for nature.
Really, well, I’m just don’t show it. Imake a point of itto notice such thingsas often as I can.
You know I think you should try to show that side of yourself more often. It
will improve your image.
So you think my image needs some improving?
Well, itwouldn’t hurt to bea little
less formal and to smileonce a
while. You may also improvethe way
you dress, maybe witha few morewarm colors.
I’m afraid I don’t know much about
fashionable design and warm colors. Do you really think the way we dress
influences the people?
You must be kidding. The first impressionyou giveis basedon yourappearance in cloth. Don’t you evernoticethe kind of shoessomeone is wearing.
No, I hardly notice.
Well then, that explains why your shoes are
always the same. How old the shoes you wear now?
This, I don’t know. Probably a year old.
And I bet you’ve been wearing them almost
every day. They look like it.
That’s right. These shoes are comfortable
and they weren’t expensive. I bet yours are expensive.
Well, they weren’t cheap. I think it’s
important to dress right, to dress for the occasion and make a good impression.
Ok, why don’t we go shopping together thisweekend. You can be myfashion advisor.
What was it for me?
If I like your advice, I willbuy you another pair of shoes. How isthat?
Ok, but they won’t be cheap. You understand
Of course, but it will be worthy if you think my new look will improve my image.
I guarantee. With me as an advisor, you can’t go wrong.
L5-7 speaking again